Table of Contents

The Search for Environmental Justice

The Search for Environmental Justice

The IUCN Academy of Environmental Law series

Edited by Paul Martin, Sadeq Z. Bigdeli, Trevor Daya-Winterbottom, Willemien du Plessis and Amanda Kennedy

This is an extended and remarkable excursus into the evolving concept of environmental justice. This key book provides an overview of the major developments in the theory and practice of environmental justice and illustrates the direction of the evolution of rights of nature. The work exposes the diverse meanings and practical uses of the concept of environmental justice in different jurisdictions, and their implications for the law, society and the environment.

Chapter 9: Indonesia REDD+: beyond carbon, more than just forest

Mas Achmad Santosa, Josi Khatarina and Aldilla Stephanie Suwana

Subjects: environment, environmental law, environmental politics and policy, law - academic, environmental law, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy


Indonesia’s Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus (REDD+) is not merely a mitigation tool to tackle deforestation and forest degradation. Indonesia’s REDD+ strategy is designed to be Beyond Carbon and More Than Forest. In its National REDD+ Strategy, the vision of REDD+ is ‘to sustainably manage forest and peatland as national assets for the ultimate welfare of the people’. Thus, the peoples’ welfare is one ultimate goal of REDD+. Consequently, the principles of REDD+ also include fairness (which is elaborated upon as equality to everyone) and human rights protection, including for groups that are vulnerable to social and economic change. To realise the vision, the initial priority of REDD+ in Indonesia is to improve governance, strengthen spatial plans and improve the investment climate. The intent is to achieve two goals at the same time, first to reduce emissions and second to maintain sustainable growth with equity. This is because the root causes of deforestation and forest/peatland degradation in Indonesia relate to failings of governance which in some cases have resulted in violation of justice principles. Therefore, REDD+ in Indonesia is not only a way to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions through such endeavours as carbon trading, but is also a catalyst for governance reform in natural resources management including more effective law enforcement. This is seen as a means to enhance equality of access to natural resources, thereby to enhance the rights of disadvantaged people including Masyarakat Hukum Adat (MHA).

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