Table of Contents

The Search for Environmental Justice

The Search for Environmental Justice

The IUCN Academy of Environmental Law series

Edited by Paul Martin, Sadeq Z. Bigdeli, Trevor Daya-Winterbottom, Willemien du Plessis and Amanda Kennedy

This is an extended and remarkable excursus into the evolving concept of environmental justice. This key book provides an overview of the major developments in the theory and practice of environmental justice and illustrates the direction of the evolution of rights of nature. The work exposes the diverse meanings and practical uses of the concept of environmental justice in different jurisdictions, and their implications for the law, society and the environment.

Chapter 15: The Australian biotechnology regulatory framework: issues concerning adventitious presence (AP), co-existence, liability and coherence

Ramesh Karky and Mark Perry

Subjects: environment, environmental law, environmental politics and policy, law - academic, environmental law, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy


One of the issues facing the sustainable supply of food, particularly when imported products are included in the supply-chain, is quality that is the content and the provenance of the product. It is internationally contentious as to the purity levels required for a crop to be admitted to the market, and with some crops the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming a common stumbling block. There is a divergence between perceptions of what constitutes an organic crop, a traditional crop and a biotechnology enhanced GM crop and their potential interactions. Concepts of environmental justice, discussed from many perspectives in this volume, get traction neither at the macro level of international trade talks on crops nor at local level in conflicts between neighbouring farmers. Unlike the United States of America and Canada, Australia has dedicated biotechnology legislation. The Gene Technology Act 2000 and the Gene Technology Regulations 2001 regulate gene technology at the federal level in Australia. Despite the regulatory framework, currently Australian agricultural biotechnology is facing many issues: for example coherence and co-existence with ‘legacy’ crops; the Adventitious Presence (AP) of genes and plants; liability for economic loss and impact on international trade. AP and liability are highly contentious issues.

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