Edited by Arnis Sauka, Friedrich Schneider and Colin C. Williams
Chapter 2: Estimating the size of the shadow economies of 162 countries using the MIMIC method
Estimations of the shadow economies for 162 countries are presented over 1999 to 2006–2007. According to these estimations, the estimated average size of the shadow economies (as a percentage of ‘official’ gross domestic product) in sub-Saharan Africa is 37.6 percent; in Europe and Central Asia (mostly transition countries) 36.4 per cent, and in high-income OECD countries 13.4 per cent. The tax burden combined with labour market regulations as well as the quantity and quality of public goods and services are the driving forces of the shadow economy. The estimations are done using the MIMIC estimation procedure, which is presented in this chapter and its strength and weaknesses discussed in detail.
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