Table of Contents

Carbon Pricing

Carbon Pricing

Design, Experiences and Issues

Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation series

Edited by Larry Kreiser, Mikael S. Andersen, Birgitte E. Olsen, Stefan Speck, Janet E. Milne and Hope Ashiabor

Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, and how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. The world has recently witnessed a significant downward adjustment in fossil fuel prices, which has negative implications for the future of our environment. In light of these negative developments, it is important to understand the benefits of environmental sustainability through well-documented research. This discerning book considers the design of carbon taxes and examines the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful policies used by some countries can be implemented in other jurisdictions with minimum new research and experimentation.

Chapter 14: Developments and opportunities for an ecological tax reform in Spain

Ignasi Puig Ventosa, Eike Meyer, Marta Jofra Sora and Maria Calaf Forn

Subjects: economics and finance, economics of innovation, environment, energy policy and regulation, environmental law, law - academic, environmental law, tax law and fiscal policy, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy


Spain is facing serious economic challenges. The public debt in 2013 reached 92.10 per cent of GDP and the unemployment rate in December 2013 was at 25.8 per cent. In this context, there is an urgency to develop fiscal strategies that have the least impact on the real economy and that will affect employment positively, in a way that the welfare of the population is guaranteed, assuring the best possible impact on the financial sustainability of the State. At the same time, reducing the environmental impact, tackling climate change and reducing inequality are the main challenges in reaching a sustainable economic development. In addition, moving towards an energy efficient and low carbon economic development gives the opportunity to improve competiveness in the future. Spain is failing to meet the objectives established by the Kyoto protocol with domestic measures adopted within Spain, in comparison with other European countries and the OECD. Greenhouse gas emissions have fallen since 2008, but this decrease is largely as a result of the reduction in the economic activity which has been particularly notable in Spain. The Spanish industry still has not made sufficient advances in terms of energy efficiency and decarbonization of the economy, and the exterior dependency on primary energy sources continues to be very high (about 75 per cent in 2012).

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