Chapter 11: Migration and climate-resilient development
Maria Waldinger 11.1 INTRODUCTION Most strategies for climate resilience focus on in situ adaptation. That is, measures are put in place to enable people and economic activities to remain in their original location (Castells- uintana et al., Chapter 4, this Q volume). In this scenario, migration is seen as a failure in adaptation, as a last- esort response when all else has failed. Such involuntary migration is r associated with high economic, social and psychological costs. However, moving away from hazard zones in a planned and proactive way can also be an adaptation tool. In some cases it may be the most effective way of remaining climate resilient. Migration has been a frequent and often effective response to climate variability and change in the past. However, the motivations to migrate are complex. The effect of climate on migration decisions also depends crucially on socio- conomic, political and institutional conditions. These e conditions affect vulnerability to climate risks and hence how important climate is in determining migration decisions. People migrate for many reasons – economic, political or social. An economic migrant leaves his or her place of residence primarily in order to improve living standards and quality of life or to take up employment outside their original location. A political migrant migrates to locations of more political freedom, for example, where freedom of speech is guaranteed. Social causes for migration include migration for marriage or family reunion. Environmental migration is migration with the prime motive to move from environmentally poor to environmentally...
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