Decision-making, Implementation and Reform
New Horizons in Environmental Politics series
Chapter 5: Deciding the package for 2020
How and why were new, binding EU climate and energy policies unanimously agreed in 2008? The first conclusion is that linkages between issues and policies provided broad scope for mutual concession during the negotiations. Secondly, the package provided side-payments to compensate less wealthy member-states. Finally, issues and policies that might obstruct the basis for agreement were decoupled from the core package and negotiated independently. Related issues and policies were de-linked from the package, to reduce complexity and avoid magnifying differences in interests. As EU energy policymaking has traditionally been more intergovernmental in nature than has climate policy, the combined energy and climate package came to reflect a blend of Liberal Intergovernmentalism and Multi-level Governance. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanisms served to reduce abatement costs for European countries and for industries.
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