Decision-making, Implementation and Reform
New Horizons in Environmental Politics series
Chapter 6: Implementation in Germany
Germany is a major player in the EU. This chapter examines German implementation of the EU climate and energy policy package for attaining 2020 goals: the extent to which and how these policies have been implemented, why and with what consequences for Germany’s positions on new EU climate policies. Germany has championed climate-policy development at national and EU levels, so one would expect good implementation performance. However, significant implementation problems emerged concerning the ESD, the CCS Directive and the ETS Directive. Adaptation pressure from the EU package because of misfit with national policies, negotiating position and national energy mix cannot explain these problems satisfactorily. The EU package was not a game-changer – Germany succeeded in uploading much of what it had favoured, and major parts of the package were readily absorbed with existing short- and long-term policies. Domestic politics proves important in explaining implementation problems: shifts in the German federal government, federal states as veto players, and horizontal and vertical administrative fragmentation. Still, Germany continued to support an ambitious EU policy package for 2030, reflecting its considerable positive experiences in implementing the 2020 package, particularly concerning renewable electricity production.
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