A Theoretical and Practical Analysis
Chapter 1: Introduction
The development of international law in the twentieth century has four main characteristics. First, the number of international treaties has increased and new treaties are constantly being entered into. Second, with the expansion of the role of the state and expansion of interdependent relations between countries, there has been an increase in the variety of the subject matter of treaties and agreements. In line with this development, international agreements are no longer limited to topics of peace and security but have expanded to such areas as trade, the economy, taxation, the environment, education, culture and human rights. Third, there has been a corresponding increase in the variety of forms, functions and techniques of treaties. Fourth, although treaty-making is primarily conducted between states, modern development also reflects an increased tendency to create rights and obligations on the basis of treaties, not only for states and international organisations, but also for private and legal persons, including economic operators. Numerous international human rights treaties in the twentieth century bear witness to this development. They reflect the fact that protection of human rights is not seen exclusively as an internal matter for states but has become a concern for the international community. In the field of human rights there is a constant process of internationalisation where more and more rules, principles and standards are incorporated in international law instruments and become universally binding.