Edited by David Smallbone, Markku Virtanen and Arnis Sauka
Chapter 7: Entrepreneurial activity of the Russian population: factors of cross-regional diversity – methodology, indicators, preliminary findings
The chapter, based on the results of a survey conducted in 2011, deals with the factors explaining the uneven dissemination of entrepreneurial activity in Russia’s regions using the methodology of the Global Entreprenership Monitor (GEM) and a regionally representative sample of the adult population (N = 56 900). Most results do not confirm the evidence of the relevant literature dealing with Western economies: namely, a higher density of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) does not guarantee the prevalence of opportunity-driven entrepreneurs; only a rather low correlation between the level of urbanization and the general Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) index level could be found; the higher the level of urbanization, the higher also the prevalence of opportunity-driven early entrepreneurship; the correlation between unemployment and the share of necessity-driven early entrepreneurship in both urban and rural settlements is insignificant. Moreover, the level of well-being correlates with the share of opportunity-driven early entrepreneurship on the regional level. However, the correlation between both well-being (expressed in terms of both factual consumption as well as gross regional product per capita) and the TEA is non-significant. When both perceived opportunities to start a new venture and self-efficacy (especially) are higher, the TEA in respective regions is higher as well; but an analogous hypothesis for settlements types was denied.
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