Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter considers the predicament of the overexploited EU fishing grounds and why the most integrated and regulated region of the world, the European Union, has failed to ensure the sustainability of its fish stocks. The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), rooted in the Common Agricultural Policy regulating the husbandry of the land and harvesting of crops, has never developed effective principles or strategies to prevent the overexploitation of stocks and has failed to impose responsibility for the regeneration of fish stocks on the industry. The Court of Justice has not provided coherence for the CFP, being more exercised by individual rights and the constitutionalisation of the law internally, and concerned not to tie the hands of legislators in external affairs. Although the EU Treaties require the integration of environmental protection in all Union policies and objectives, the CFP is not made subject to environmental provisions. In 2014 a reformed CFP came into effect through the 2013 Basic or Fisheries Regulation. However, as with previous iterations of the CFP, the new regulation will not be effective to overcome overexploitation.