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Market Instruments and the Protection of Natural Resources

Market Instruments and the Protection of Natural Resources

Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation series

Edited by Natalie P. Stoianoff, Larry Kreiser, Bill Butcher, Janet E. Milne and Hope Ashiabor

Only through a concerted global effort can we protect our natural resources, save our precious natural environment, and indeed our future. But pressures on natural resources come from many directions such as overuse, mismanagement and contamination. This much-needed book reviews and evaluates the use of market and fiscal instruments in protecting our natural resources, from rural to marine environments. Market instruments that are designed to protect the global atmosphere are evaluated, along with carbon instruments and environmental tax incentives. Meanwhile, consideration is given to shifting the tax burden to achieve environmentally responsible outcomes, balancing sustainable use and natural resource protection, and protecting water resources.

Chapter 13: Paris: The dilemmas of international climate change negotiations and the role of linked Emissions Trading Schemes in the post-2020 regime

Elena de Lemos Pinto Aydos

Subjects: environment, environmental economics, environmental law, environmental politics and policy, law - academic, energy law, environmental law, tax law and fiscal policy, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy


In 1994, a near-universal assembly of countries under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognised that the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources is causing climate change and its adverse effects are a common concern for humankind. Parties agreed for the first time in 2009 that the increase in global temperature should be below 2°C above pre-industrial temperature. Paradoxically, the same nations have failed for over a decade to achieve an effective, legally binding agreement to reduce global GHG emissions. A new paradigm of international cooperation is now being shaped, based on universal—but not uniform—participation, reflecting national circumstances. Complementing the multilateral platform, there is a proliferation of regional approaches to climate change mitigation and adaptation. It is therefore the right moment to reflect on the decade-long impasse of international negotiations under the auspices of the UNFCCC, in order to understand the challenges and opportunities that have materialised in this process.

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