New Horizons in Environmental Economics series
This chapter deals with why we need a book on travel costs methodology (TCM) models, what they achieve and the plan of the book. Why do we need a book on TCM models? Humankind relies on natural resources for continued existence, in common with other living species. Natural resources have historically supplied food, clothing, shelter, the means to care for our persons and both the environment and tools needed for various forms of relaxation and spiritual rejuvenation. Over millennia, people settled in all the continents except Antarctica and developed their various ethnic characteristics and cultures. One characteristic common to all was their reliance on nature to survive and flourish; another was their profound impacts on their local flora and fauna. They changed the relative abundance of various species. In more modern times, the great European migrations placed Europeans with their cultures in new lands. Instead of adapting their cultural practises to new environments, by and large they tried to adapt the environments to their cultures. One result has been the considerable depletion of natural resources. More than sixty per cent of US timber reserves, for example, were cut in the nineteenth century. Another result has been the generally unanticipated change in populations of untargeted species. A third effect has been a huge increase in human standards of living over the last two hundred years accompanied by large scale transformation of natural resources into useful tools and products that have made our lives easier and longer. All human cultures use and...