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E-4 scheme. Coined by Maurice Strong as the four variables that best describe sustainable development programs: equity, economics, ecological integrity, and empowerment. Earth sciences. Earth Summit. Development. See geology. See United Nations Conference on Environment and earthworm biotechnology. The treatment of livestock effluent by first preconditioning the slurry in tanks and then applying the same to land already enriched with earthworms. Earthworm technology is thought to reduce odorous emissions from effluents and to speed the decomposition of the slurry. easement. A legal right between a landowner and another to use the land for a particular purpose, such as the passage of telephone lines. See conservation easement. Ebola. A viral disease named after a place in Zaire where it was first discovered in 1976. The disease is extremely infectious and often fatal. The host of the disease is most likely endemic to the equatorial forests of central Africa, and thus increased human activity in the forest, such as deforestation, may increase the number of outbreaks. ecofeminism. A school of thought that places the exploitation of women by men as the fundamental explanation for the misuse and abuse of the environment. See social ecology. ecolabels. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has established three standards for labeling “environmentally friendly” products. Type I labels are for products independently monitored and environmentally preferred throughout their life cycle, type I1 labels are for products where the manufacturers make claims about whether the product is environmentally friendly but without accepted criteria for their use, and type...
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