Environmental Regulation in the New Global Economy

Environmental Regulation in the New Global Economy

The Impact on Industry and Competitiveness

Rhys Jenkins, Jonathan Barton, Anthony Bartzokas, Jan Hesselberg and Hege Merete Knutsen

This book attempts to answer these questions using case studies of three pollution-intensive industries: iron and steel, leather tanning, and fertilizers. Based on in-depth interviews with managers and regulators in Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, the book illustrates the variety of responses to the conflicting pressures of globalization and environmental protection at corporate and industry levels.

Chapter 5: The European Union Iron and Steel Sector

Rhys Jenkins, Jonathan Barton, Anthony Bartzokas, Jan Hesselberg and Hege Merete Knutsen

Subjects: development studies, development economics, economics and finance, environmental economics, environment, environmental economics, environmental governance and regulation


SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS The European Union iron and steel sector has been influential in the international production and consumption of steel products for over a century, yet the changes that have taken place since the late 1970s in terms of national restructuring and international patterns of demand and product diversification have been the most significant in its history. The principal characteristics of the sector following the most intensive phase of restructuring are its continuing domination by German output, followed by Italy, France and the UK, with a Northern European focus on integrated production and a Southern European shift towards EAF technologies. While European firms were closely tied to national clients until the 1980s, they are now operating in a highly competitive global market and exports as a percentage of EU production have increased from 31.4 percent (1980) to 61.7 percent (1997), although in spite of this increase the region has experienced a declining share of worldwide steel exports (see Table 5.3). In response to the falling apparent consumption per capita of steel in the EU, the regions of rising consumption, particularly Asia, have been targeted for exports, joint ventures and foreign direct investment. The product range has also changed, with a movement towards higher value-added production and a specialization in particular products tailored to client needs, especially for the motor industry. This specialization in steel products can be seen in the rise in non-alloy carbon steel production by only 8 percent (1990-7) whereas higher value alloy steels (45 percent)...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information