Studies in Modelling and Decision Support
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Edited by M. A. Quaddus and M. A.B. Siddique
Chapter 12: Aquaculture, Environmental Spillovers and Sustainable Development: Links and Policy Choices
Clem Tisdell Introduction Although aquaculture as been practised for many centuries, it was in the past on quite a modest scale and limited to a few species, for example carp. However, in recent decades, aquaculture has shown very rapid expansion. This is partly because catches of wild ﬁsh have expanded at a slower rate than demand and many new scientiﬁc and technological advances have been made in aquaculture. Furthermore, by the mid-1990s evidence available to scientists indicated that catches of wild ﬁsh had either reached, nearly reached or even exceeded their sustainable limits (Williams, 1997). Consequently, according to Meryl Williams (1997, p. 18), then Director of ICLARM, now ‘aquaculture is the major, though not sole hope, for improving the world’s ﬁsh production’. Aquaculture, particularly marine aquaculture, has become a new economic frontier. Just as humankind in the past experienced the Agricultural Revolution, it seems now to be starting on an Aquaculture Revolution. Naturally, this raises the question of how sustainable it will be. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the sustainability of aquaculture production. If expanded aquaculture production sets in motion forces that make it unsustainable, economic development based on it will be shortlived. One should at least be aware how lack of economic sustainability of aquaculture production can arise, and be prepared to adopt policies to curb or prevent undesired trends in this. In this chapter, it is pointed out that (a) factors endogenous to the productive unit and (b) factors exogenous to individual productive units...
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