Chapter 10: Gender, Citizenship and Welfare State Regimes
Julia S. O’Connor Introduction All three elements of the title of this chapter – gender, citizenship and welfare state regimes – are contested concepts and this is particularly true when considered in relationship to one another either jointly or in total. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the broad dimensions of the debates on these concepts as they relate to one another in the literature on comparing and categorizing social policy provision and redistribution crossnationally. This entails a review of developments in the comparative analysis of welfare states, the elements of the citizenship debate as it relates to this and the gender-sensitive critique of, and contribution to, both. The structure of the chapter is as follows: section I is concerned with the welfare state concept and the cross-national variation of welfare states. This includes a brief discussion of the centrality of citizenship in welfare state development. Section II focuses on the welfare state regime concept. Section III presents a brief outline of the gendered analysis of the citizenship as rights and citizenship as obligation traditions, arguing that they are complementary and that both are essential to an effective analysis of welfare state regimes. Section IV is concerned with the overlapping gender critique of citizenship and welfare state regimes. Section V concludes with a brief overview of the current state of research on gender, citizenship and welfare state regimes. I. The welfare state or welfare states? The welfare state as we know it today in Western economically developed...
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