Elgar original reference
Edited by Sandra L. Fielden and Marilyn J. Davidson
The number of women entering small business ownership has increased signiﬁcantly across the world. These women make a crucial contribution to the economic growth and development of local, national and global economies. Yet, despite their increasing numbers, they have received little attention from the academic community and research into the experiences of women small business owners is conﬁned to a handful of countries. The work on women entrepreneurs is far more extensive and generally eclipses the area of small business ownership. In entrepreneurial research, the emphasis has tended to be on the experiences of women originally from senior corporate management backgrounds, whereas small business research encompasses women from a wide range of social, economic and educational backgrounds. It is suggested that entrepreneurs demonstrate inventive tactics that are employed to achieve long-term growth and proﬁtability, whereas small business owners are motivated towards their own goals rather than expansion and proﬁtability (e.g. Carland et al., 1984). As women tend to be classed as small business owners rather than entrepreneurs does this mean that they are less ambitious or motivated than their male counterparts? Past research suggests that it is not the degree of ambition or motivation that diﬀers but the form that ambition takes, with women using personally deﬁned intrinsic measures of success as opposed to extrinsic, ﬁnancial measures (Buttner and Moore, 1997). If entrepreneurial success is based on a male-deﬁned model of success that women do not conform to, does this make women less...