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Edited by Léo-Paul Dana
Chapter 2: An Accidental International Foray
Frank Hoy In 1984, the Academy of Management Review published ‘Diﬀerentiating Entrepreneurs from Small Business Owners: A Conceptualization’, by James Carland, Frank Hoy, William Boulton and JoAnn Carland. This article has become one of the most frequently cited articles in the entrepreneurship literature. The idea for the article originated with the observations made by Carland and myself when assisting small business owners through the Small Business Development Center of the State of Georgia in the United States. It became evident to us that the majority of our clientele were low growth or no growth ventures, while a minority had the potential and were being managed to achieve rapid growth. The latter were on track to be the wealth and job creators, ventures that are referred to as ‘Gazelles’. Carland made the diﬀerentiation of these two groups the subject of his dissertation, from which the Academy of Management Review article was derived. Searching for the entrepreneur The Academy of Management Review article was an extension of a research stream that began with my dissertation studies at Texas A&M University. Funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, I conducted an investigation of the decision-making styles of small business owners in rural communities. The study provided information for justifying and designing a university-based network of experts to help small business owners survive and grow in order to maintain and create jobs in rural communities. A survey of 150 business owners generated data, not only about their decision styles, but...
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