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Chapter 6: International Entrepreneurship and Chinese Business Research
Henry Wai-chung Yeung International entrepreneurship is a relatively new ﬁeld of academic and policy pursuits, as testiﬁed in the chapters by leading scholars in this volume. In this emerging ﬁeld, research attention has been largely placed on the internationalization of entrepreneurship in relation to new venture formation and the internationalization of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In one of the earliest contributions to international entrepreneurship, McDougall (1989; also McDougall et al., 1994; McDougall and Oviatt, 1996, 2000) focused almost exclusively on international new venture ﬁrms and compared their strategic behaviour and industry structure with domestic new ventures. Firm-speciﬁc and industry-speciﬁc factors were presented as the critical dimensions to explain and diﬀerentiate ﬁrm behaviour. There was neither a theoretical nor an empirical role given to individual entrepreneurs who have propelled the ﬁrms into an international arena. This is not surprising because, as recently as 1994, international entrepreneurship was still considered as an ‘even newer thrust of research activity’ in international business research (Wright and Ricks, 1994: 699). Moon and Peery (1997: 11) also argued that ‘Entrepreneurship is very important in international business. There are some noteworthy, new international ventures that, from inception, seek to derive signiﬁcant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of outputs in multiple countries.’ In this chapter I aim to take the argument further and propose the concept of ‘transnational entrepreneurship’ as the key to unite two separate ﬁelds of management studies: entrepreneurship research and international business research (see...
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