Chapter 11: The Costs and Benefits of a Revised European Bathing Water Directive in the Netherlands
R. Brouwer and R. Bronda
11. The costs and beneﬁts of a revised European Bathing Water Directive in The Netherlands R. Brouwer and R. Bronda 1. INTRODUCTION The European Commission (EC) is working towards a revision of the current European Bathing Water Quality (BWQ) Directive (76/160/EEC). Current BWQ standards for escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci will become more stringent, and, contrary to the existing Directive, the identiﬁcation of eﬀective management measures in the case of non-compliance will play a much more important role besides BWQ monitoring. This is in line with the principles laid down in the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). In its 2000 Communication, the EC states that the revised BWQ Directive should have a greater emphasis on the application of suitable, prompt management actions, without forgetting the fact that water quality objectives have to be met. Under the new scheme, there will be requirements for both compliance with the quality standards and for reaction when these standards are breached. In The Netherlands, there are over 600 oﬃcial bathing locations. Noncompliance is currently limited: less than 5 per cent of all the oﬃcial bathing sites are unable to comply with current standards (Table 11.1). However, the proposed new standards are expected to result in a substantial increase in the number of non-complying bathing sites to more than 30 per cent. Most of these sites (Ͼ95 per cent) concern inland waters, only a few are coastal bathing locations. At these sites, measures will have to be taken in order to...
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