Chapter 13: Cost–benefit Analysis of Large-Scale Groundwater Remediation in France
13. Cost–beneﬁt analysis of large-scale groundwater remediation in France J.-D. Rinaudo and S. Loubier 1. INTRODUCTION Since the industrial revolution, the development of economic activities has exerted signiﬁcant pressures on groundwaters through diffuse and point source pollution. Diffuse industrial pollution is mainly related to atmospheric pollution, which contaminates rainwater and soils and, ultimately, groundwater. Groundwater point source pollution, the focus of this chapter, generally results from leakage from tanks, waste dumps such as urban and industrial landﬁlls, mining waste dumps and spoil heaps or accidental spills caused by transport accidents, ﬁre and so on. Contaminants found in groundwater are mainly volatile organic contaminants (VOC), such as dicholroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, vinil chloride and benzene. Other contaminants commonly present include heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oils. One of the main characteristics of industrial point source pollution is that they often remained undetected for decades. The actors responsible for the pollution (for instance, leakage of buried chemical storage tanks) were either not aware of the pollution or they did not report the pollution to the competent authorities. Their impact is thus frequently discovered long after the pollution actually took place, typically when the pollution plume reaches a drinking water well, generating an economic damage for a third party. Given the long time that usually passes between the pollution event and its detection, the contaminated area may be very large and the costs of possible remediation measures signiﬁcant.1 In France, the number of reported cases of...
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