Chapter 2: The global picture
1 Kym Anderson, David Norman and Glyn Wittwer Globalization is not new to the world’s wine markets, but its influence on them over the past decade or so has increased significantly. One indicator of that is the growth in the volume of exports as a percentage of global production, which rose from 15 to 26 per cent between 1988–90 and 2001.2 For the big four European wine exporters that ratio rose from 20 to 33 per cent, which was impressive by historical standards; but for the New World exporters (North and South America, South Africa and Australasia), the ratio rose from just 3 per cent in the late 1980s to 20 per cent by 2001. That dramatic entry on to the international stage by New World producers has presented and will continue to present some serious challenges to producers in the Old World in both Western and Eastern Europe. Moreover, following a dramatic expansion in their vineyard plantings in the later 1990s, New World regions too face challenges as the grapes from those recent plantings add significantly to the stocks of wine available for sale. This chapter’s review of recent developments points in particular to the dramatic increase in the industry’s export orientation and quality upgrading in the New World and the consequent competitive pressures on the Old World in key import markets. The chapter draws on a new model of the world’s wine markets that distinguishes non-premium, commercial premium and super-plus premium wines in each of 47 countries...
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