Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.

Canada

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Subjects: economics and finance, economics of innovation, intellectual property, innovation and technology, economics of innovation, intellectual property

Extract

Table CA.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 717 720 662 771 865 831 841 820 682 620 7,529 Small Firm 436 472 484 563 734 706 831 833 787 736 6,582 Nonprofit 54 77 100 98 125 155 116 137 124 99 1,085 Total 1,207 1,269 1,246 1,432 1,724 1,692 1,788 1,790 1,593 1,455 15,196 Figure CA.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 45.00% 30.00% 15.00% 0.00% -15.00% 94 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 120 Canada 121 Table CA.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 1,097 1,103 1,073 1,156 1,269 1,054 843 436 53 % >=1 90.9% 86.9% 86.1% 80.7% 73.6% 62.3% 47.1% 24.4% 3.3% Cited >= 3 789 765 657 645 601 371 179 56 1 % >= 3 65.4% 60.3% 52.7% 45.0% 34.9% 21.9% 10.0% 3.1% 0.1% Total 1,207 1,269 1,246 1,432 1,724 1,692 1,788 1,790 1,593 Table CA.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 181 228 244 289 362 422 421 429 388...

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