Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.

France

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Subjects: economics and finance, economics of innovation, intellectual property, innovation and technology, economics of innovation, intellectual property

Extract

Table FR.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 139 150 117 111 155 142 132 121 108 89 1,264 Small Firm 168 203 202 186 247 235 240 252 246 248 2,227 Nonprofit 11 8 10 13 11 12 19 24 12 12 132 Total 318 361 329 310 413 389 391 397 366 349 3,623 Figure FR.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% -10.00% 94 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 128 France 129 Table FR.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 267 302 270 231 275 208 147 91 5 % >=1 84.0% 83.7% 82.1% 74.5% 66.6% 53.5% 37.6% 22.9% 1.4% Cited >= 3 162 186 154 115 117 61 29 8 0 % >= 3 50.9% 51.5% 46.8% 37.1% 28.3% 15.7% 7.4% 2.0% 0.0% Total 318 361 329 310 413 389 391 397 366 Table FR.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 60 75 57 78 88 100 80 116 78 85 % Chem. 18.9% 20.8% 17.3% 25.2% 21.3% 25.7% 20.5% 29.2% 21.3% 24.4% Elec. 45 53 57 35 67 51 67 51 69 62 % Elec....

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