Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.

Germany

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Subjects: economics and finance, economics of innovation, intellectual property, innovation and technology, economics of innovation, intellectual property

Extract

Table DE.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 367 355 352 425 504 513 474 510 401 381 4,282 Small Firm 550 520 518 549 754 745 833 829 780 719 6,797 Nonprofit 52 44 59 62 102 130 129 84 83 56 801 Total 969 919 929 1,036 1,360 1,388 1,436 1,423 1,264 1,156 11,880 Figure DE.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% -10.00% -20.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 130 Germany 131 Table DE.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 930 843 829 845 950 764 573 272 24 % >=1 96.0% 91.7% 89.2% 81.6% 69.9% 55.0% 39.9% 19.1% 1.9% Cited >= 3 642 559 461 390 353 212 101 16 0 % >= 3 66.3% 60.8% 49.6% 37.6% 26.0% 15.3% 7.0% 1.1% 0.0% Total 969 919 929 1,036 1,360 1,388 1,436 1,423 1,264 Table DE.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 178 166 187 227 278 316 298 284 297 265 % Chem. 18.4% 18.1% 20.1% 21.9% 20.4% 22.8% 20.8%...

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