Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.

Switzerland

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Subjects: economics and finance, economics of innovation, intellectual property, innovation and technology, economics of innovation, intellectual property

Extract

Table CH.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 97 90 105 86 90 83 85 82 57 50 825 Small Firm 174 135 145 149 169 176 188 199 157 144 1,636 Nonprofit 3 4 5 8 6 8 8 15 5 16 78 Total 274 229 255 243 265 267 281 296 219 210 2,539 Figure CH.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% -10.00% -20.00% -30.00% 94 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 168 Switzerland 169 Table CH.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 234 189 204 183 179 169 118 69 6 % >=1 85.4% 82.5% 80.0% 75.3% 67.5% 63.3% 42.0% 23.3% 2.7% Cited >= 3 139 122 88 91 77 54 17 7 0 % >= 3 50.7% 53.3% 34.5% 37.4% 29.1% 20.2% 6.0% 2.4% 0.0% Total 274 229 255 243 265 267 281 296 219 Table CH.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 47 42 38 51 65 58 59 68 50 49 % Chem. 17.2% 18.3% 14.9% 21.0% 24.5% 21.7% 21.0% 23.0% 22.8% 23.3% Elec. 21 27 37 32 29 28 24 30 31 39 % Elec....

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