Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.

Turkey

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Subjects: economics and finance, economics of innovation, intellectual property, innovation and technology, economics of innovation, intellectual property

Extract

Table TR.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 12 Small Firm 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 6 Nonprofit 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 5 Total 2 0 1 1 0 2 4 5 5 3 23 Figure TR.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 120.00% 60.00% 0.00% -60.00% -120.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 172 Turkey 173 Table TR.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 2 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 % >=1 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% Cited >= 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 % >= 3 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Total 2 0 1 1 0 2 4 5 5 Table TR.3 Distribution of SE patents by Technology Class, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Chem. 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 % Chem. 50.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% 40.0% 0.0% 66.7% Elec. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 % Elec. 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 20.0% 0.0% Mech. 1 0 1 1 0 2 2...

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