The Influences on Creativity in Research and Innovation
Edited by Sven Hemlin and Carl Martin Allwood
Chapter 7: Technological paradigm shifts and new modes of coordination in science-based industries
Robert Kaiser INTRODUCTION Technological paradigm shifts have occurred in recent years especially in industries that have commonly been characterized as science-based. In science-based industries, firms are intensively engaged in cooperation with universities and non-university research institutes as they rely heavily on the exchange of knowledge with the domestic or international science base. The dependence on scientific knowledge is mainly due to four distinct features that characterize those industries: drastically increasing costs of innovation, the growing significance of interdisciplinarity, an increasingly close relationship between basic research and industrial application, and a tighter meshing of research and demand (cf. Meyer-Krahmer, 1997, p.298). In order to measure the extent to which a specific industry is dependent on scientific knowledge, Grupp and Schmoch (1992), among others, used citations of scientific publications in patents as a quantitative operationalization of science-based technologies and applied this indicator to 30 technical fields. Their results confirm that both fields that are under consideration for this analysis, telecommunication equipment and pharmaceutical biotechnology, belong to the group of science-based technologies. Biotechnology and pharmaceuticals showed the strongest relationship to science, while telecommunications followed some distance behind (cf. Meyer-Krahmer and Schmoch, 1998). This chapter analyses new modes of coordination within the German telecommunication equipment and the pharmaceutical biotechnology industries that have emerged primarily as a result of technological paradigm shifts.1 Modes of coordination have changed not only in the relationship of firms with external knowledge providers, such as universities and non-university research institutes, but also concerning linkages with customers or competitors. However this...
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