New Horizons in Public Policy series
Edited by Fergus Carr and Andrew Massey
Fergus Carr and Theresa Callan INTRODUCTION The collapse of the Soviet Union marked not just the end of the Cold War, but also the threat system that was a fundamental element of the political cohesion of the transatlantic relationship. Moscow’s policies had cemented the Atlantic community and provided the focus for its strategic rationale. In the aftermath of the Cold War international actors were offered ‘a relatively blank sheet of paper on which to write the outlines of a new world order’ (Howorth, 2004a, p. 211). In the process of rethinking and redeﬁning security new policy preferences and approaches developed on both sides of the Atlantic. The antecedents of this divergence of interests can be found in the past history of European and American relations but the policy disputes, which fractured openly over Iraq in 2002–2003, heralded a far stronger potential for divorce than past rifts. This chapter examines the erosion of the Western security community amidst the challenges of the post-Cold-War era. It analyses the impact of the reconceptualization of security upon NATO and the European Union (EU). It reviews the role of the Western Alliance in the new Europe and the international system. It concludes with an analysis of Europe and America after 9/11 and considers the future cohesion of transatlantic relations. TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS IN THE COLD WAR The basis of the transatlantic alliance lay in the European and American mutual recognition of security dependence. Both sides responded to ‘powerful incentives to cooperate and avoid discord...
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