New Horizons in Public Policy series
Edited by Fergus Carr and Andrew Massey
Fergus Carr and Andrew Massey In concluding this volume, it is useful to remind ourselves how the grand project of the European Union began: it was in the context of a continent ruined by the devastation of the Second World War, a devastation wrought by the conﬂict between fascism, Nazism, Soviet communism and liberal democracy. As a maimed Western Europe began to reconstruct itself, it lay wounded and threatened by Stalin’s tanks to the East and in thrall to the overwhelming economic hegemony of US power to the West. Western Europe lay trapped in the middle, with Germany in particular seen as the prize to be ‘won’ by either side. Jean Monnet, the successful French businessman, state planner and later ‘father’ of the EU, saw clearly what needed to be done. He wrote that for France there was an obvious path to take: ‘I could see only one solution: we must bind ourselves inextricably to Germany in a common undertaking in which our other neighbours could join. A European-wide territory of prosperity and peace would thus be created’ (www.jean-monnet.ch/anglais/pMonnet/monnet5.htm). From the outset this was to be both a political and economic project, an approach repeated with the accession of ten new states in 2004. But it was not the ﬁrst time Monnet had been closely involved with such an undertaking. In the autumn of 1939 the concept of a European federation based on the UK and France had already been proposed, with the intention that a newly democratic Germany...
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