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Edited by Léo-Paul Dana and Robert B. Anderson
Chapter 16: Peoples, Livelihoods and Change in Europe’s Far and Atlantic North
Ludger Müller-Wille The contributions to Part IV represent an intriguing and varied picture of the changes that have happened in indigenous peoples’ livelihoods and economies within the speciﬁc geographic environments and cultural settings of Europe’s Far and Atlantic North during the twentieth century and into the twenty-ﬁrst century. The individual chapters create their own foci presenting, discussing and analysing case studies from diﬀerent regions and countries in which indigenous peoples and immigrant populations reside with each other as majorities or minorities. Together the chapters provide a detailed insight into the dynamics of local entrepreneurship in small, dispersed communities throughout a vast geographic space, their centre of life – homelands – that are too often seen as peripheral and remote by external interests. Ethnography and participant observation allow for description and a focus on speciﬁc local cases, while other chapters include theoretical discussions related both to the selected cases and to the broader context of economic and political developments in multicultural and multilingual settings, national developments and international cooperation, following earlier discussions stimulated by Fredrik Barth (1963). Regional processes and geographical names The residents of Europe’s Far and Atlantic North have experienced rapid socioeconomic and political changes since the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the dividing line of the bipolar world between East and West gradually disappeared. The geographic regions include (i) Kalaalliit Nunaat, the Land of the Kalaalliit, or Greenland (cf. Dahl, 2000) in the maritime rim of Europe’s North Atlantic; (ii) Gaeltacht, Gaelic-speaking Western Ireland...
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