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Edited by Léo-Paul Dana and Robert B. Anderson
Chapter 43: Ngai Tahu: The New Zealand Success Story in Indigenous Entrepreneurship
Charlotte Paulin Introduction While indigenous groups around the world aspire to equalise their people’s depressed socioeconomic status to a standard akin to the ﬁrst world, there is minimal evidence of the realisation of such an ambition in today’s society. In general, indigenous people are less educated, are concentrated in the lower income brackets, are more likely to be unemployed and thus have greater dependence on social welfare. The plight of indigenous people is common throughout the world: Indians in Canada, Aborigines in Australia and Maori in New Zealand all suﬀer from inferior standards of living in comparison to the remainder of their country’s population (Manuel and Posluns, 1974). Frideres (1983) suggests that indigenous peoples’ struggle for survival is due to a struggle for identity. In the early nineteenth century, numerous facets of indigenous culture and traditional behaviour were forfeited in favour of colonial inﬂuences that oﬀered new behavioural norms. However colonisation led to the ultimate devastation of indigenous culture and a loss of control for its people. La Violette (1973) reasons that, for any ethnic group to be able to survive, it must be able to assert control over its fate. Thus, in order for indigenous people to be able to develop economically, they must have full, uninhibited rights to control their lands, their people and their resources. Considerable land and resources were lost as a result of colonisation, ultimately leading to the depressed socioeconomic circumstances of indigenous people today. In order for improvements to be seen...
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