Elgar original reference
Edited by Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory
Chapter 1: From ‘Old’ Industrial Policy to ‘New’ Industrial Development Policies
Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory Introduction The last 20 years have been characterized by signiﬁcant changes in productive structures and international competition. The entry of new competitors, such as Japan in the 1980s and China and India more recently; technological changes such as the diﬀusion of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs) and scientiﬁc breakthroughs such as genetic engineering and the development of biotechnologies; institutional changes such as the deepening of European integration and enlargement of the European Union (EU); social and demographic changes such as the ageing of the population in developed countries; and so on have led to the necessity of structural adjustments so signiﬁcant as to redesign the economy and the society beyond the boundaries of national states. All these changes imply the deﬁnition of new industrial policies, at both national and international levels. In fact, new approaches to industrial policy have been tried out throughout the world, in particular the formulation and implementation of policies ‘from the bottom’ (local or regional), in a context in which the central authorities seem no longer to have the coercion and command powers they used to have. In contrast, old-type industrial policies were direct interventions by the central state in markets to pick winners and support the development of particular sectors. This policy functioned in a context where the national state was indeed the reference. We deﬁne industrial policies as a variety of public actions aimed at guiding and controlling the structural transformation process of...
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