Selected Empirical Analyses
New Horizons in Environmental Economics series
Edited by Phoebe Koundouri
Chapter 7: Conflicts in wildlife conservation: aggregating total economic values
7. Conﬂicts in wildlife conservation: aggregating total economic values Timothy Swanson and Andreas Kontoleon 1. INTRODUCTION For at least 50 years economists have been arguing that identifying, assessing and then appropriating the maximum possible values for biodiversity is imperative for designing and implementing any biodiversity conserving wildlife strategy or policy (e.g. Krutilla, 1967). It would be safe to say that the economist’s position has been sold and is by now almost universally acknowledged (e.g. OECD, 2002). A central concept in this reasoning is that of Total Economic Value (TEV) (Pearce and Turner, 1990). The concept was developed to encompass the plurality of values that individuals may hold for environmental resources. In the case of wildlife, these cover consumptive use values (e.g. wildlife products), non-consumptive use values (e.g. recreation) and non-use values. Use values (either consumptive or non-consumptive) are associated with ﬂows derived from wildlife stocks (e.g. food, ornaments, medicines, recreational experiences and so on) that directly enter the individual’s utility function. Non-use values are best seen as monetary expressions of the utility gained from knowing that certain wildlife related ﬂows accrue to diﬀerent constituencies. These beneﬁciaries may include other people in the present or the future as well as the species themselves. The concept of TEV has been treated as an accounting identity in which the various types of values all add up. In other words, it has been assumed that all categories of value are compatible with one another. Yet, this aggregative property of the TEV...
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