The Cases of France, Mexico and Brazil
Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework and Review of Experiences
1 Ronaldo Seroa da Motta 2.1 INTRODUCTION The use of economic instruments (EI) has been analysed in a vast literature. Theoretical analysis started with the pioneer proposal of externality taxation of Pigou and led to the detailed and comprehensive theoretical work of Baumol and Oates (1988). Add to this numerous books and articles dealing with specific particularities in distinct contexts. The same abundance is found within the literature of EI experiences. It is specially worth noting the diverse OECD (for example, 1994, 1995) publications that describe and analyse every single and specific case of EI in developed countries. A detailed survey for selected developing countries can be found in RietbergenMcCracken and Abaza (2000). A recent survey of Stavins (2002) covers all regions in the world, pointing out reasons for failures and successes. For Latin America and the Caribbean the World Bank research in Seroa da Motta et al. (1999) presents the first comprehensive analysis of EI uses, later complemented by a Cepal study in Acquatella (2001). A useful earlier citation is Panayotou (1993). This chapter will not attempt to propose new theoretical or analytical insights relevant to EI use in the Latin American region. Instead it will point out the issues raised in the literature that will be most useful to understanding and evaluating the case studies of water EIs that are fully described in the following chapters. In doing so, it will not only present these theoretical and practical issues but it will also discuss the existing experiences that...
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