Elgar original reference
Edited by Russell W. Belk
Jeﬀrey F. Durgee and Manli Chen Background Marketers have been using metaphors for many years in marketing and marketing research in all three stages of the marketing process: need ﬁnding (Zaltman, 2003; Rapaille, 2001), new product idea generation (VanGundy, 1988; Cougar, 1995; Schon, 1979; Dahl and Moreau, 2002) and marketing actions including advertising (Mick and McQuarrie, 1999), product naming (Durgee and Stuart, 1987) and new product design (Dumas, l994). In each phase, marketers, consumers and new product development people use metaphors to understand each other better, and they use them to see needs, new product concepts and other marketing actions from fresh perspectives, perspectives which help marketers and product developers conceive new variations on these needs and products. Looking across the range of marketing activities, there is particular pressure for marketers of goods and services to answer the question, ‘what’s next?’ Inevitably, they face a lot of pressure to come up with the next version or deﬁnition of that good or service that will ﬁre consumer imagination and generate sales. Consequently, in this chapter, we are concerned with the question of how marketers can creatively redeﬁne or reconceive their oﬀerings. We review the metaphor concept as well as literature dealing with the way market needs and metaphors are used to generate new product ideas. We also describe a series of exploratory projects aimed at improving the eﬀectiveness of metaphor usage in new product ideation, in particular how needs might be incorporated more directly in...
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