Whaling Diplomacy

Whaling Diplomacy

Defining Issues in International Environmental Law

New Horizons in Environmental and Energy Law series

Alexander Gillespie

Whaling Diplomacy is the only book that addresses all of the substantive issues relating to the conservation of whales through the International Whaling Commission (IWC). It covers the law, policy, science and philosophy at the heart of each element of the debate, discussing how it has developed, the current problems that beset it and what is necessary for the future. Together, all of the issues involved in whaling form a single crucible through which the future of conservation in international environmental law is being debated.

Chapter 4: Incidental Capture

Alexander Gillespie

Subjects: environment, environmental law, environmental sociology, law - academic, environmental law

Extract

1 THE OVERALL PROBLEM The oceans provides crucial functions for the planet in general, and humanity in particular. One of the more important roles for humanity is the supply of fish, for an ever-hungry, expanding human population.1 In spite of this need, and in correlation with an ever-increasing take from the oceans,2 the current state of the world’s fisheries is dismal.3 According to the FAO, 11 of the world’s 15 most important fishing areas and 70 per cent of the major fish species are either fully or overexploited.4 Apart from the problem that much of this catch is destined for animal feed (approximately 25–30 per cent),5 a further approximate quarter is wasted. This wastage is typically known as ‘bycatch’. ‘Bycatch’ is a large problem in international environmental law generally. In definitional terms, ‘bycatch’ refers to ‘all species captured other than target species’.6 In some fisheries, the incidentally caught species are discarded straight away. In others, they are utilized for other purposes.7 Some fisheries are particularly problematic. For example, shrimp trawlers which work with fine-mesh nets in areas of high species diversity, take on average 5 kilograms of bystanders for every kilogram of shrimp they catch. In some shrimp fisheries, up to 97 per cent of the bycatch is discarded (although the industry average appears closer to 85 per cent) producing over 4 million tonnes of waste fish. Total bycatch from all of the world’s oceans is estimated at 17.9–39.5 million tonnes of ‘undesired species’ being killed...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information