A Comparative Study, Volume 2
The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development
Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra
Chapter 9: Attribution of Air Damages to Countries and Economic Sectors of Origin
Bert Droste-Franke, Wolfram Krewitt, Rainer Friedrich and Alfred Trukenmüller 9.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the application of the impact pathway approach, which was developed under the ExternE project (EC, 1995) for the calculation of damages caused by air pollution in the EU and the attribution of damages by economic activity. Here, calculations are made using modelled emissions. In the ﬁrst part of the present chapter the impact and damage cost assessment used is reported in more detail. Following that (in Sections 9.3 to 9.5) the emission scenarios and the corresponding results are presented. Section 9.6 includes a further analysis of the results. Finally, in Section 9.7 the results obtained with modelled data are compared with those obtained with measured concentration data (as presented in Chapter 8). 9.2 METHODOLOGY OF THE IMPACT AND DAMAGE COST ASSESSMENT This part of the study concentrates on the effects on crop yields, building materials and human health of emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and related secondary pollutants like ozone (O3) and particles. An estimation of the impacts of directly emitted particles smaller than 10 micrometres (PM10) was also carried out. Note that pollutant estimates are not calculated using the same sources as in the previous chapter, but from CORINAIR. The exposure–response functions and monetary values discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 were used for the impact assessment. The stock at risk data of crop cultivation and population distribution used 226 Attribution of...