Theory, Methods and Public Policy
New Horizons in Environmental Economics series
Edited by Gary Paul Green, Steven C. Deller and David D. Marcouiller
Chapter 4: Equity within Institutional Arrangements for the Supply of Rural Amenities
Jacqueline Candau, Philippe Deuﬃc, Sylvie Ferrari, Nathalie Lewis and Mbolatiana Rambonilaza INTRODUCTION The Farming Acts of the 1960s enabled France and Europe to develop a self-suﬃcient agricultural sector capable of export. These Acts emphasized technical modernization and restructuring of farms. This model was showing its limits by the mid-1980s. Within the European Union, voices were raised against the negative impacts of this intensive farming model on food safety, the preservation of natural resources (especially soils, water resources and biodiversity) and the demographic, economic and social structure of rural areas. Outside Europe, it was challenged because it obstructed deregulation of trade and it distorted competition to the detriment of developing countries through exports of European agricultural surpluses (Dupraz et al. 2001). In 1992 the European Union began to reform its Common Agricultural Policy, spurred on by the GATT agreements signed in Marrakesh in 1994. Gradually, the principles of decoupling production subsidies, ecoconditionality and modulation came to constitute the new conceptual framework of agricultural policies.1 The European Union bestowed a major role on agriculture and its environmental and social functions. A normative vision of the multifunctionality of agriculture was thus put forward as a means of implementing sustainable economic and social development in our societies (Laurent 2002). In France multifunctionality was adopted within the framework of the new Farming Act of 1999 designed, according to the farming organizations, ‘to renew the terms of the contract between agriculture and the Nation’ (Hervieu 2002, p. 415). At the same time, on the...
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