Simon Duke and Sophie Vanhoonacker INTRODUCTION The administrative level of the European Union, or the so-called ‘Brussels bureaucracy’,1 has enjoyed increasing attention from EU scholars in recent years.2 Most studies however focus on the ﬁrst pillar and concentrate on the staff of the European Commission. The limited attention paid to the administrative structures in the area of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is though not surprising. During the years of European Political Co-operation (EPC) (1970–1993), the administrators dealing with foreign policy co-operation were primarily diplomats and civil servants in the national capitals3 and it was not until the 1990s that the Brussels-based administrative structure of European foreign policy really started taking shape. ‘Brussels bureaucrats’, as they were somewhat pejoratively called, were not therefore welcome in the world of high politics until relatively recently. It is for this reason that CFSP administrative structures have only developed incrementally and, in many cases, they continue to develop in response to the demands made upon the European Union. The objective of this contribution is to apply the concept of administrative governance to CFSP. The focus is not therefore on the political actors who have formal responsibility over CFSP, although they are mentioned brieﬂy in passing for contextual reasons, but on the administrative level and a number of interlinked questions. What is the role of the administration in the decision making process and what is its impact on policy outcomes? Are they merely technical advisers or do they play a...
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