A Global Research Perspective
New Horizons in Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene and Myra M. Hart
Chapter 15: Spain – The Gender Gap in Small Firms’ Resources and Performance: Still a Reality?
Cristina Díaz and Juan J. Jiménez INTRODUCTION The under-capitalization of women-owned firms has been associated with their experiences of gender disadvantage within waged work and is reinforced by women’s role in domestic labour. Accordingly, women will see their opportunities to amass financial, human and social capital constrained, which becomes translated into their creating firms that face structural disadvantages – firms in the service and retail sectors, of smaller size and younger (Marlow and Strange, 1994; Chell and Baines, 1998). Also, a lower economic performance has been linked to this initial under-capitalization (Brush, 1992; Boden and Nucci, 2000). Accruing various forms of capital is crucial for business success, yet access to capital is shaped and influenced by the wider economic and social pressures that are deep-rooted and gender-based (Marlow and Carter, 2004; Breitenbach, 1999), this is to say, the gender belief system – attitudes towards social roles; gender stereotypes – can have an effect on women when attempting to secure resources for their ventures (Eagly and Karau, 2002). According to the expectancy theory, pursuing growth would be a function of the business-owners’ expectancy perceptions that their effort will bring the rewards they look forward to – and this will be influenced by their abilities and skills – together with the perceived value of the reward. Maybe it is not only that women have fewer resources but that they perceive the consequences of growth in a more negative way: more workload that would be incompatible with their family needs, loss of control, interference with other...
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