The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development
Edited by Alessandro Lanza, Anil Markandya and Francesco Pigliaru
Chapter 8: Tourism and sustainable development: lessons from recent World Bank experience
Anil Markandya, Tim Taylor and Suzette Pedroso 1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to look at how the World Bank has treated tourism in its development strategy and in its lending and other activities. Until recently, tourism was not a major focus of World Bank eﬀorts, though an increased recognition of this sector as a driver for economic growth and sustainable development has led to its inclusion in a number of projects. World Bank strategies are starting to include sustainable tourism development as an objective, but progress is slow and tourism has been targeted in some Country Assistance Strategies (CAS) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The chapter is structured as follows. Section 2 reviews the ﬁndings of the research on the key linkages between tourism and development and looks at the relevance of this to the World Bank and its operations. Section 3 reports on the Bank lending that has been supportive of tourism (directly or indirectly), through ﬁnancial and technical assistance for infrastructure investment, management of tourism facilities and sites and general community development. Fifty-nine projects have been looked at, which cover the last ﬁve years (1997–2002). Section 4 examines those projects that have had at least some funding from GEF (Global Environment Facility) sources as well as the Bank. These are projects involving protection of global public goods, such as biodiversity, where the case for some tourism is frequently made on the grounds that such use of the resource can provide some of...
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