Elgar original reference
Edited by David B. Audretsch, Isabel Grilo and A. Roy Thurik
Chapter 11: Entrepreneurship Policy in Bavaria: Between Laptop and Lederhosen
* Marcel Hülsbeck and Erik E. Lehmann Introduction As described by Audretsch and Thurik (2001), globalization is shifting the comparative advantage in the OECD countries away from being based on traditional inputs of production towards being based on knowledge. As the comparative advantage is increasingly based on new knowledge, policy makers have responded by enabling its creation and commercialization. Furthermore, new policy approaches are emerging, shifting the focus from national and international aspects toward regions and regional clusters. Examples of these policies mentioned above include for instance encouraging research and development (R&D) spillovers, venture capital and new ﬁrm startups (Audretsch et al., 2006). In this new entrepreneurship-based policy, universities play a key role in providing spillovers by means of academic research and human capital in the form of well-trained and educated students (see Siegel and Phan, 2005 for an analytical framework and an excellent summary of the empirical work). The success of a number of diﬀerent technology clusters is the direct result of enabling policies, such as the provision of research support by universities. Much attention has recently been focused on the so-called European Paradox. On the one hand, Europe has consistently made some of the largest investments in new knowledge, in the form of research and development, university research and human capital. On the other hand, commercialization, innovation and ultimately economic growth, emanating from those knowledge investments, have been relatively low, and in any case disappointing. Germany, in total, has not yet escaped the European Paradox. Investments...
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