Emerging Technology Innovation Poles
Chapter 2: US Technology Infrastructure and the Development of Regional Innovation Poles through Incubation Mechanisms
INTRODUCTION The United States is a leader in the development of knowledge regions and in enhancing their capacity to create, attract and expand innovation-producing assets to leverage them for carving a ‘new economy’ space. To participate more fully in this innovation-driven ‘new economy’ many US regions, states and localities have striven to emulate the success of the legendary technology innovation poles (TIPs) – Silicon Valley and Boston’s Route 128 – with the development of new and emerging TIPs, the focus of this book. In doing so, they have reinforced the local knowledge infrastructure by building institutions of higher education and R&D organizations; they have forged partnerships and designed policies supportive of networking; and they have often relied on modern technology and enterprise development tools such as science parks and incubators to nurture technology-based firms. To better understand the context of innovation, this chapter starts with a review of the US national innovation system at federal, state and regional levels. This is followed by a discussion on the representative cases of knowledge regions or TIPs selected for study. The in-depth analysis of each of the selected cases explores the history of their development, their current status as technology innovation poles, and studies the main science and technology park facilities that were established as focal points to develop the knowledge region. A common format is employed for each case study, and the chapter ends with a summary and conclusion. 2.1 THE US NATIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM Recently, the US Council on Competitiveness, a group...
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