Chapter 10: The Rise of Non-state Actors in Security Governance
Elke Krahmann INTRODUCTION National and international security has been traditionally conceived of in terms of interstate relations. Globalization is in the process of changing this. The growing interconnectedness of peoples across the globe is contributing to the rise of new transnational security threats such as civil wars and the resultant refugee ﬂows, global terrorism, organized crime and the proliferation of small arms and weapons of mass destruction (Gordenker and Weiss, 1996; Zangl and Zürn, 1999). The ability of the state to combat these threats within the context of national policies is challenged by their transnational nature. Moreover, the ﬁnancial resources of states to address simultaneously the diversity of security concerns, which emerged after the end of the Cold War, have been limited. Public spending on defence has been cut back due to popular demand for a peace dividend, while budgetary pressures on defence have been rising due to the increasing cost of military research and development. Consequently states are increasingly looking towards non-state actors, such as international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private companies, to help them provide for national and international security. Non-state actors can do so in multiple ways. They can operate more easily across national borders, they have particular expertise in dealing with non-traditional security issues and they can draw on formal and informal networks with other actors. This chapter argues that the increasing fragmentation of security policymaking among state and non-state actors can be understood as a shift from government to governance in security. It...
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