Chapter 11: The National German Innovation System – Its Development in Different Governmental and Territorial Structures
11. The national German innovation system – its development in diﬀerent governmental and territorial structures Hariolf Grupp, Icíar Dominguez Lacasa and Monika Friedrich-Nishio1 It is always diﬃcult to record the history of events that have not yet run their course and whose outstanding players are all still living. . . . Events appear diﬀerent, once they are concluded; diﬀerent again, while they are still developing. In both instances, the aims of the reporter also diﬀer. Gustav Struve (1849/1980, p. 290) 1. METHODOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION The general appreciation of innovation corresponds with a typically European method of thinking which is not found in all cultures. ‘The positive evaluation of new ﬁndings, the esteem for innovation, the idolisation of inventors, as well as inventions and patents, are achievements of the modern world dominated by European-American inﬂuence, which, from a historical point of view, are relatively young’ (Dohrn-van Rossum 1999, p. 39). However, even in the Christian Occident, the presently predominant emphasis on innovation results from the manifold historical changes of the past centuries. Initially, inventions and discoveries were not considered as an act of creation but only represented the rediscovery of natural phenomena created by God. This change of consciousness – which took place prior to the period investigated by this chapter (1850–2000) – should be dealt with in order to better localise innovation-critical opinions in the present; however, this cannot be done here. A practicable way to measure innovation could be the elaboration of deﬁnitions and measurement methods by...
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