Chapter 7: Reflections on Impacts and Outcomes of Regional Trade Liberalization in an Asia-Pacific Context
7. Reﬂections on impacts and outcomes of regional trade liberalization in an Asia-Paciﬁc context Kenneth E. Jackson INTRODUCTION This chapter reﬂects on particular issues of trade liberalization and impacts, including individual food security as well as more general aspects of the topic of trade liberalization. World Trade Organization (WTO) requirements are the usual consideration for most researchers, but there has been a virtual plethora of regional and bilateral agreements since the mid1990s, partially resulting from opposition and delays to the WTO process. Sub-global agreements are not an adequate replacement for global ones, but they need to be analysed fully in any consideration of recent trade liberalization. They are an increasing fact of life and appear likely to continue to be so, whether Doha is revived or not. They have important impacts on distributional issues, including food security, especially given the regional nature of much international food trade. There are ﬁve sections to this chapter. The next section attempts to examine the issues relating to the impacts and outcomes of RTAs with special focus on Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (ANZCERTA). The third section sets out an approach to analysing the impacts of change in a disaggregated manner including food security. The fourth section is a brief reﬂection on some aspects of the liberalization experience in particular cases in the Asia-Paciﬁc region. The ﬁnal section deals with some concluding remarks. IMPACTS AND OUTCOMES OF RTAs: BASIC ISSUES Regional agreements are viewed as very...
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