Handbooks of Research on Clusters series
Edited by Charlie Karlsson
Gary A.S. Cook and Naresh R. Pandit 1 Introduction It is a commonplace that creative industries, of which broadcasting is an important example, are principally urban phenomena and have a strong tendency to be highly agglomerated within particular cities (Florida, 2002; Hall, 2000; Landry, 2000; Scott, 2000). This chapter will analyse the causes and eﬀects of such agglomeration. Scott (2000) identiﬁes New York, Los Angeles, London, Paris and Tokyo as the leading examples of privileged centres for the production of cultural artefacts, not least due to the interactions between a broad range of agglomerated cultural industries within them. Within television broadcasting, including programme production speciﬁcally, Hollywood is dominant, with London and Tokyo being other major global centres. The chapter focuses on television broadcasting, which is far more highly concentrated than radio broadcasting. In the course of the chapter there will be reﬂection on a number of key issues and debates in the economic geography literature in respect of which the broadcasting industry oﬀers some relevant evidence. These debates are brieﬂy set out in the literature review. The evidence reported thereafter relating to the UK broadcasting industry is based on three sources: a large-scale econometric study of cluster dynamics using ﬁnancial data on 1213 broadcasting ﬁrms throughout the UK; an interview survey consisting of 72 interviews conducted mainly with ﬁrms in the three cities, London, Bristol and Glasgow, between 2001 and 2002; a questionnaire survey of ﬁrms in London conducted between January and April 2004,...
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