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Edited by Andrew T.H. Tan
Chapter 21: The Triad of Twenty-first Century Counter-Terrorism
21 The triad of twenty-ﬁrst century counter-terrorism Renato Cruz De Castro This chapter discusses the possible ways of waging a counter-terrorism campaign. Methods to counter this type of non-state violence range from the application of calibrated organized violence to international cooperation or concerted global eﬀorts to remove its underlying causes. This topic also raises the following questions: (1) As a form of war of the third kind, what are the particular characteristics of contemporary transnational terrorism? (2) How does terrorism threaten the security of individual states and the international community? (3) What is the origin and nature of the transnational Islamic terrorist network in Southeast Asia? and (4) What are the possible means of managing this kind of transnational security challenge? Clearly and simply, however, there are no cut-and-dried solutions to transnational terrorism, which is a very complex phenomenon. No single means can eﬀectively deal with this security challenge. What works in one situation may fail in other cases. Moreover, certain measures may spell short-term success, but could sow the seeds of future discontent and grievances. Thus, what will be discussed are potential counter-terrorist approaches which states can adopt to address adequately this transnational security challenge. Terrorism as a ‘war of the third kind’ The ‘war of the third kind’ is a form of political violence waged by organizations other than the state against state actors.1 It is a type of warfare fought in developing countries where it is waged either between a state and some other...
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