Chapter 5: Data and Methods
INTRODUCTION This chapter describes the data used to test the learning-by-exporting hypotheses that the subsequent chapters advance. The data set this study employs is unique and allows me to test learning-by-exporting considerations in a more meaningful and statistically rigorous manner than was possible heretofore. The subsequent sections detail the sources of the data and describe the sample and measures. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the statistical methods used to test the learning-byexporting phenomenon. Several of the Appendices feature greater formal treatment of the methods, including a detailed account of the econometric speciﬁcations and their appropriateness for this study. 5.2 SAMPLE The data presented here are from a yearly survey initiated in 1990 by the Fundación Empresa Pública with the ﬁnancial support of the Spanish Ministry of Industry. The Fundación Empresa Pública surveys a stratiﬁed random sample of Spanish manufacturing ﬁrms to get a representative picture of the country’s manufacturing sector. The data cover the entire population of Spanish ﬁrms with 200 or greater employees and include 4 percent of the population of ﬁrms with at least ten but fewer than 200 employees. Although the Fundación continues administering the survey and anticipates doing so for some years, I was aﬀorded access to data from the years 1990 through 1997. The initial survey collected information on 2188 ﬁrms from 18 distinct industries (Table 5.1).1 When a ﬁrm drops from the sample in any given year, another ﬁrm with similar characteristics...
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